Tuesday, February 20, 2018

Who Turned an Unacceptable Prophetic Jewish Religion into an Acceptable Christian One?

It was the Christian Church Fathers led by Eusebius who created an acceptable religion, that is to the Roman elite.  The main clue is the fact that there are NO CHRISTIAN MANUSCRIPTS and NO CHRISTIAN CHURCHES or PRAYER HALLS from before the second/third century.  After that, the number of manuscripts and church buildings increases suddenly.  Hurtado puts this down to the number of Christians that were increasing at this time.  I put it down to the fact that there was the equivalent of a University based in Roman Caesarea which attracted scholars from over the Mediterranean area.  The pro Roman scholars (monks) fabricated Christianity from manuscripts originally written by prophetic Jews and Roman historians.  They produced a religion that was acceptable to the Roman emperor Constantine.  At the same time they wrote the prophets and the true Jewish history out of history.  As Hurtado says, the preferred method of communication was the Codex. This technology was brought from Rome.  It enabled the Church Fathers to change texts without rewriting the complete manuscript and to make their message more easily available.  The Jews and the Christians revered the writings attributed to Josephus.  But War has largely been created by the Church Fathers.  Antiquities was originally a Jewish prophetic document which was edited by the Church Fathers.  The most unlikely character, Josephus, was fabricated.

Larry, on page 71 of your book Earliest Christian Artifacts you write that according to Roberts and Skeat, the codex (and the nomina sacra): must have derived from some early Christian center with "sufficient authority authority to devise such innovations and to impose them on Christendom generally."  Roberts and Skeat suggested that only Jerusalem and Antioch qualified.  You disagreed with this theory, saying "it naively assumes a scheme of ecclesiastical authority and centralization that is seriously anachronistic for the first and early second centuries CE."  That may be entirely true.  Brent Nongbri thinks you could be wrong in your early datings by possibly at least 100 years. This would change your argument, because a real centre of authority then appears on the radar, Caesarea, where it is estimated 30,000 manuscripts were produced, but were probably destroyed by Muslim invaders.  Nongbri says on Variant Readings (Jan 19, 2018) “We don’t actually know with certainty how many second and third century Christian manuscripts we have. There are actually very few pieces that can be dated on non-subjective grounds to the period before Constantine.” The trend of Nongbri’s work seems to be in the direction of proving that there are no manuscripts from the first, second and third centuries. His latest post (Feb 13, 2018) is about two fragments of a codex of Deuteronomy 2 and 3, P.Ryl.1.1. He says it was produced from what was originally a documentary roll cut into pieces and pasted together with the written sides facing. The document includes a readable date of CE 293. He suggests that the codex of Deuteronomy must have been written later in the fourth century. He further says that most would regard the codex as Christian.

Roberts and Skeat suggested that only Jerusalem and Antioch qualified as centres of Christian influence.  Academics, including Hurtado, ignore Caesarea.  Yet it was in Caesarea that a number of well known scholars wrote.  These included Origen and Eusebius.  Yes, these Church Fathers not only invented Christianity, they also changed what Roman historians had originally written.  The supporting evidence for this is the lack of early manuscripts and the numbers of manuscripts that have gone missing.  Usually any manuscript of Roman history that has survived has been preserved by some monk in some monastery. But the earliest manuscript on Roman history is from the fifth century.  The earliest manuscript of Antiquities, supposedly originally written by one Josephus, is from the eleventh century.  It was originally created by prophetic Jews.  They wanted to explain to the Roman elite, such as Claudius, their way of being made holy and acceptable to God.  Prophets believed that if one heard and obeyed the Spirit of God, that was all that was necessary. The only rituals which the prophets observed was immersion which was symbolic, and burning of incense.  The Jewish priests  taught that people should sacrifice animals to God in propitiation. Sacrifice was rejected by the prophets.  

The characters in the New Testament, Jesus, James, Paul, Peter, the 'twelve' are fictitious, as is Josephus.  The lack of early manuscripts, means there is no evidence to support what we usually understand is Christian and its related Roman history.  

The Source of Paul's Epistles
The Pauline literature is based on the writings of king Agrippa regarded as the Great by the rabbis.  Agrippa was in effect the king of all Jews, not just in Judea.  It was from Rome that he wrote all his epistles to the Jews in the diaspora.  He was working under the eye of Nero his friend, promoting the Spirit of God.  He was given the support of Nero's court including that of his secretary Epaphroditus.  He travelled from Rome to visit the diaspora Jews.  He was tracked by Eleazar (son of the priest Caiaphas) and some of his fellow priests who opposed Agrippa. The Church Fathers of the second /third century used Agrippa's correspondence as the basis for the Pauline corpus.



Wednesday, February 14, 2018

My Conversation with Professor Larry Hurtado

“The Law” in the NT: Word Stats February 6, 2018

Tools such as BibleWorks (and I am the grateful recipient of a copy of version 9) allow one to perform some quick analysis of word-usage and comparative frequency. Here are some raw numbers, with little by way of comment.

Greek forms of the word for “law” (νομος, νομον, νομου, νομῳ) appear some 191 times in the Greek NT. Of this total, the distribution is interesting: Romans (74x), Galatians (32x), Acts (16x), John (15x), Hebrews (12x), James (10x), 1 Corinthians (9x, 6 of these in chapter 9 ), Luke (9), Matthew (8x), Philippians (3x), 1 Timothy (2x), Ephesians (1x). No uses at all in Mark, 2 Corinthians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, or Revelation.

It’s particularly interesting to me to note the figures for the Pauline Corpus: In the undisputed epistles (I dispute that they were written by Paul.  This is Hurtado's arrogance.), the word appears 118x, in four epistles. The 74x in Romans accounts for 62% of this total, and uses in Romans and Galatians comprise 90% of the total. Clearly, Paul’s focus on “the law” was not characteristic of most of his letters. So, was the “law/gospel” theme quite so central for Paul as it became for Luther?? 

The statistics may be of interest to Hurtado, but he makes nothing of them.  I believe that in a high proportion of cases the word 'Law' has been substituted by the Church Fathers of Caesarea for the original word 'sacrifice'.  Paul never wrote anything.  The Pauline Corpus and the rest of the New Testament was written (or edited from original prophetic documents) in the second/third century by the Church Fathers.    

Of the Gospels, GJohn has the largest usage (15x), followed by GLuke (9x) and then GMatthew (8x). Interesting: that very “Judaic” looking GMatthew has a comparatively modest number of uses of “law”. But the combative tone of GJohn (featuring conflicts between Jesus and Jewish authorities and crowds) is reflected in the greater number of uses of “law”.

Geoff Hudson permalink
Larry, how would a Jew by birth know that a man was not justified by observing the law? (Gal.2.15,16)

larryhurtado permalink
Gal 2:15-16 is one Jewish *Jesus-believer* speaking to another. As such, Paul says, by their faith and baptism they have shown their agreement that the Law does not suffice to justify. REad more carefully Geoff.

Larry spouts the usual simplistic stuff.

Geoff Hudson permalink
Why would a Jew say he was a Jew by birth?

larryhurtado permalink
Geoff: READ THE TEXT of Galatians! It’s written to Gentile believers, and the scene in question (Gal 2) is where Jewish believers “from James” arrive in Antioch and insist that the Gentile believers should not be treated as full partners in faith. Paul portrays a confrontation with Peter about the issue, and his argument proceeds on the basis of a shared premise. “We, Kephas, are Jews by birth (not proselytes, or hangers-on). Yet we (by our faith in Christ) demonstrate that the Torah does not justify us, and that faith in Christ does.” But, as I say, Geoff, read the text of Galatins.

Professor Hurtado is naive.  I have read and pondered over the text many times.  He just cannot think out of his little box. There were no Jewish believers (including a fictitious Kephas or Peter) sent by a non-existent Jewish James who supposedly arrived in Antioch to confront a fictitious Paul. That was all the invention of the second /third century Church Fathers.  But there was a Jewish rebel leader Eleazar (a son of the executed Caiaphas) who arrived in Rome to confront a real Agrippa I (a prophet) and a friend of Nero.  Eleazar, a priest, and Agrippa were deadly enemies - Agrippa had executed Eleazar's father for leading a rebellion against the fortress of Machaerus.  They confronted each other in a synagogue in Rome.  The confrontation was about sacrifice not the Law.  The prophets had given up on sacrifice as a means of receiving cleansing from the time of Judas Maccabeus. The priests had been outcasts from the temple. 

Geoff Hudson permalink
Please Note: Your comment is awaiting moderation - Larry refused to publish
Larry, I happen to think that this text was derived from a text far more fundamental. Thus Gal. 2.15,16 began with the words “We who are prophets by birth”. This would be as, for example, 1 Samuel 1.20 when Samuel was born to Hannah when she subsequently gave him to the Lord and he became a prophet residing in the temple. Prophets were thus dedicated to God at birth. For a Jew to say “We who are Jews by birth” is entirely unnecessary. From a prophets point of view, the verses then become: “We who are [Jews] {prophets} by birth [and not Gentile sinners] know that a man is not [justified] {cleansed} by [observing the law] {sacrifice}, but by [faith] {obedience} in [Jesus Christ] {the Spirit}”. 

Sacrifice was frowned upon by prophets, as it was by most other Jews in the diaspora.

Geoff Hudson permalink
Please Note: Your comment is awaiting moderation - Larry refused to publish
Larry, the confrontation was not with Peter, but with a priest, probably Eleazar the son of Caiaphas. This was an argument between a prophet and a priest.

My last two comments were not published by Hurtado.  They prompted outbursts from Larry by emails.  Previous to my comments, his replies are the standard garbage that one gets from academics in the field of biblical studies.  He believes the text literally as it stands and regards it as truth.  He lives in an academic institutional bubble having his back scratched by others tarred with the same brush.  

On 12 February 2018 at 23:13, HURTADO Larry <L.HURTADO@ed.ac.uk> wrote:
Please don't send any more crazy comments. You can't just make up texts and pretend that they're real. That's . . . crazy. You have a right to your own opinions, but not your own truth. And what you hold as opinions is . . . crazy stuff, Geoff, not real. Really. Get some help. Serious.

Geoff Hudson 
13 Feb (7 days ago)
Larry, I don't do crazy. I have long asked how did Christianity come about? The historical and biblical evidence is there.

On 13 February 2018 at 09:27, HURTADO Larry <L.HURTADO@ed.ac.uk> wrote:
Yes, Geoff. The evidence is there. You don't need to make shit up like you do.
But you have this mania. So be it. We're done.

From: Geoff Hudson <geoff.t.hudson@gmail.com>
Sent: 13 February 2018 13:16:54
Subject: Re: crazy comments
Larry, how do you know that the mania is not in you. Here is truth.

The Epistle to the 'Galatians' - Written by Agrippa from Rome to the Prophets of Judea

The situation was deteriorating in Judea.  Eleazar (Barabbas), the son of Caiaphas, was on the rampage, and his rebel priests were causing trouble for the prophets. This was a sure sign that the Roman provincial Governors were supporting the priests in opposition to Agrippa and the prophets.

"All the brothers with me" (1.2) were in Rome.  Agrippa wrote this epistle from Rome to the prophets of Judea who gathered in synagogues or assemblies.  The Spirit calls and cleanses. (1.6).  The so-called "different gospel" was sacrifice.  "Some people" (1.7) is a non-descript term for specific people, such as Eleazar.  Some prophets were trying to please priests (1.10) and not following the Spirit.  

Agrippa received the Spirit from God (1.10,11,12), not from priests.  "Received" is explicit in 1.12.  The Church Fathers dissimulate.  They have the fictitious Paul unknown to the Judean assemblies, despite saying Paul persecuted them.They know that Agrippa himself wrote this epistle from Rome, so the they have Paul seeing only the fictitious James and Peter in Jerusalem.   “They only heard the report” of his conversion.  Paul is sent away to remote Syria and Cilicia. (1.13-24) 

Fourteen years before Agrippa wrote his letter, Nero had been staying with king Agrippa (The Great, ie Agrippa I) in his Palace at Ein Gedi.  The were friends.  Agrippa had a great influence on the then young Nero.  Barnabas was fabricated.   Eleazar, eventually to be Agrippa's executioner, went to Rome to challenge what Agrippa was teaching.  The men who opposed the fictitious Paul were apparently sent by James in Jerusalem.

[ ] = read out, { } = read in

Chapter 1
1.1.[Paul] {Agrippa},

[an apostle – not sent from men nor by man, but by Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised him from the dead]

1.2.and all the brothers with me, to the [churches] {assemblies} in [Galatia] {Judea}:

1.3.[Grace and peace to you from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ,
1.4.who gave himself for our sins to rescue us from the present evil age, according to the will of God and Father,
1.5.to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.]

1.6.I am astonished that you are so quickly deserting the [one] {Spirit} who called you [by the grace of Christ] {and cleansed you}, and are turning to [a different gospel] {sacrifice}.

1.7.[- which is no gospel at all].

Evidently [some people] {Eleazar and his fellow priests} are throwing you into confusion
and are trying to pervert the [gospel of Christ] {Spirit of God}.

1.8.[But even if we or an angel from heaven should preach a gospel other than the one we preached to you, let him be eternally condemned!
1.9.As we have already said,
So now I say again: If anybody is preaching to you a gospel other than what you accepted, let him be eternally condemned! 
1.10.Am I now trying to win the approval of God? 
Or am I] 

{Are you} trying to please [men] {priests}?
If I were still trying to please [men] {priests}, I would not be a servant of [Christ] {the Spirit}.

1.11.I want you to know, brothers, that the [gospel] {Spirit} I [preached] {proclaimed} is not [something that man made up] {a spirit of man}.

1.12.I did not receive [it] {the Spirit} from any [man] {priest}

[, nor was I taught it];

rather I received it [by revelation] from [Jesus Christ] {the Lord}.

1.13.[For you have heard of my previous way of life in Judaism, how intensely I persecuted the church of God.
1.14.I was advancing in reputation beyond many Jews of my own age and was extremely zealous for the traditions of my fathers.
1.15.But when God, who set me apart before I was born and called me by his grace, was pleased
1.16.to reveal his Son in me so that I might preach him among the gentiles, I did not consult any man,
1.17.nor did I go up to Jerusalem to see those who were apostles before I was but I went immediately into Arabia, and later returned to Damascus.
1.18.Then after three years, I went up to Jerusalem
to become acquainted with Peter and stayed with him fifteen days.
1.19.I saw none of the other apostles – only James, the Lord’s brother.
1.20.I assure you before God, that what I am writing to you is no lie.
1.21.Later I went to Syria and Cilicia.
1.22.I was personally unknown to the churches of Judea that are in Christ.
1.23.They only heard the report: that the man who formerly persecuted us is was now preaching the faith he once tried to destroy.

1.24.And they praised God because of me.]

Chapter 2

2.1.Fourteen years [later] {ago}, I went up again to [Jerusalem] {Rome} this time with [Barnabas] {Nero}.

[ I took Titus along also].

2.2.I went in response to [a revelation] {an invitation from the Emperor Claudius}, and set before them the [gospel] {Spirit} that I [preached] {proclaimed} among the [Gentiles] {Jews}.

[But I did this privately to those who seemed to be leaders,
for fear that I was running, or had run my race in vain.
2.3.Yet not even Titus, who was with me, was compelled to be circumcised, even though he was a Greek.
2.4.This matter arose previously because some false brothers tried to take away the freedom we have in Christ Jesus and to make us slaves.
2.5.We did not give in to them for a moment, so that the truth of the gospel might remain with you.
2.6.As for those who seemed to be important
– whatever they were makes no difference to me; God does not judge by external appearance – these men added nothing to my message.
2.7.On the contrary, they saw that I had been entrusted with the task of preaching the gospel to the Gentiles, just as Peter had been to the Jews.
2.8.For God, who was at work in the ministry of Peter as an apostle to the Jews was also at work in my ministry as an apostle to the Gentiles.
2.9.James, Peter and John, those reputed pillars, gave me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship when they recognised the grace given to me. They agreed that we should go to the Gentiles, and they to the Jews.
2.10.All they asked was that we should continue to remember the poor -- the very thing I was eager to do -- and to abstain from food sacrificed to idols, from blood, from the meat of strangled animals and from sexual immorality.]


2.11.When [Peter] {Eleazar} came to [Antioch] {Rome}, I opposed him to his face, because he was clearly in the wrong.

2.12.[Before certain men came from James, he ate with Gentile sinners. But when they arrived, he began to draw back and separate himself from the Gentiles because he was afraid of those who belonged to the circumcision group.
2.13.The Jews joined him in his hypocrisy, so that by their hypocrisy even Barnabas was led astray.
2.14.When I saw that they were not acting in line with the truth],

I said to [Peter] {Eleazar} in front of them all,

["You are a Jew, yet you act like a Gentile and not like a Jew. How is it, then, that you force Gentiles to follow Jewish customs?]

2.15.“We who are [Jews] {prophets} by birth 
[and not Gentile sinners]

2.16.know that a man is not [justified] {cleansed} by [observing the law] {sacrifice}, but by [faith] {obedience} in [Jesus Christ] {the Spirit}".

[So we too have put our faith in Christ, so that we may be justified by faith in Christ, and not by observing the law, because by observing the law no-one will be justified.
2.17.If, while we seek to be justified in Christ, it becomes evident that we ourselves are sinners, does that mean that Christ promotes sin? Absolutely not!
2.18.If I rebuild what I destroyed, I prove that I am a law-breaker.
2.19.For through the law I died to the law so that I might live for God.
2.20.I have been crucified with Christ, and I no longer live, but Christ lives in me.
2.21.I do not set aside the grace of God, for if righteousness could be gained through the law, Christ died for nothing!"]

Chapter 3


3.1.You foolish [Galatians] {prophets}! [Who] {Eleazar} has bewitched you ? Before your very eyes, [Jesus Christ] {the Spirit} was clearly portrayed as [crucified] {God}.

3.2.I would like to learn just one thing from you:  Did you receive the Spirit by [observing the law] {sacrifice}, or by [believing] {obeying} [what] {him} you heard?

3.3.Are you so foolish? After [beginning with] {obeying} the Spirit, are you now trying to attain your [goal] {cleansing} by [human effort] {sacrifice}?

3.4.Have you suffered so much for nothing -- if it really was for nothing?

3.5.Does God give you his Spirit [and work miracles among you] because you [observe the law] {sacrifice}, or because you [believe] {obey} [what] {him} you heard?

3.6.[Consider Abraham: "He believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness."
3.7.Understand, then, that those who believe are children of Abraham.
3.8.The Scripture foresaw that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, and announced in advance the gospel to Abraham: "All nations will be blessed through you."
3.9.So those who have faith are blessed along with Abraham, the man of faith.
3.10.All who rely on observing the law are under a curse, for it is written: "Cursed is everyone who does not continue to do everything written in the Book of the Law."
3.11.Clearly no-one is justified before God by the law, because “The righteous will live by faith.” 3.12.The law is not based on faith; on the contrary, "The man who does these things will live by them."
3.13.Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us, for it is written: “Cursed is everyone who is hung on a tree.”
3.14.He redeemed us in order that the blessing given to Abraham might come to the Gentiles through Christ Jesus, so that by faith we might receive the promise of the Spirit.
3.15.Brothers, let me take an example from everyday life.
Just as no-one can set aside or add to a human covenant that has been duly established, so it is in this case.
3.16.The promises were spoken to Abraham and to his seed. The scripture does not say “and to seeds”, meaning many people, but “and to your seed”, meaning one person, who is Christ.
3.17.What I mean is this: The law, introduced 430 years later, does not set aside the covenant previously established by God and thus do away with the promise.
3.18.For if the inheritance depends on the law, then it no longer depends on a promise; but God in his grace gave it to Abraham through a promise.
3.19.What, then, was the purpose of the law?
It was added because of Israel’s transgressions until the seed to whom the promise referred had come.  The law was put into effect through angels by a mediator.
3.20.A mediator, however, does not represent just one party; but God is one.
3.21.Is the law, therefore, opposed to the promises of God? Absolutely not! For if a law had been given that could impart life, then righteousness would certainly have come by the law.
3.22.But the Scripture declares that the whole world is a prisoner of sin, so that what was promised, being given through faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those who believe.
3.23.Before this faith came, we were held prisoners by the law, locked up until faith should be revealed.
3.24.So the law was put in charge to lead us to Christ that we might be justified by faith.
3.25.Now that faith has come, we are no longer under the supervision of the law.
3.26.You are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus.
3.27.for all of you who were baptised into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ.
3.28.There is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.
3.29.If you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise.]

Chapter 5


5.1.It is for [freedom] {glory} that [Christ] {the Spirit} has [set us free] {cleansed us}.
Stand firm, then, and do not let yourselves be burdened again by a yoke of [slavery] {sacrifice}.

5.2.Mark my words! I [Paul,] {Agrippa} tell you that if you [let yourselves be circumcised, Christ] {sacrifice}, {the Spirit} will be of no value to you at all.

5.3.[Again I declare to every man who lets himself be circumcised that he is required to obey the whole law.
5.4.You who are trying to be justified by law have been alienated from Christ; you have fallen away from grace.
5.5.But by faith we eagerly await through the Spirit the righteousness for which we hope.
5.6.For in Christ Jesus, neither circumcision nor uncircumcision has any value. The only thing that counts is faith expressing itself through love. 
5.7.You were running a good race. Who cut in on you and kept you from obeying the truth. 
5.8.That kind of persuasion does not come from the one who calls you.
5.9."A little yeast works through the whole batch of dough."
5.10.I am confident in the Lord that you will take no other view.
The one who is throwing you into confusion will pay the penalty ,whoever he may be.
5.11.Brothers, if I am still preaching circumcision, why am I still being persecuted?
5.12.As for those agitators, I wish they would go the whole way and emasculate themselves!
5.13.You, my brothers, were called to be free. But do not use your freedom to indulge the sinful nature; rather, serve one another in love.
5.14.The entire law is summed up in a single command: "Love your neighbour as yourself."
5.15.If you keep on biting and devouring each other, watch out or you will be destroyed by each other.]


5.16.So I say, [live by] {obey} the Spirit, and you will not gratify the desires of the [sinful nature] {spirit of deceit}.

5.17.For the [sinful nature] {spirit of deceit} desires what is contrary to the Spirit, and the Spirit what is contrary to the [sinful nature] {spirit of deceit}. They are in conflict with each other, so that you do not do what you want.

5.18.But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the [law] {spirit of deceit}.

5.19.The [acts] {spirits} of [the sinful nature] {deceit} are obvious: sexual immorality, impurity and debauchery,

5.20.idolatry and witchcraft; hatred, discord, jealousy, fits of rage, selfish ambition, dissensions, factions and envy; drunkenness, orgies, and the like. I warn you, as I did before, that those who [do] {obey} these [things] {spirits} will not [inherit] {receive} the [kingdom] {Spirit} of God.

5.21.But the [fruit of the Spirit is] {spirits of truth are} love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness,

5.23.gentleness and self-control. Against such things there is no law.

5.24.[Those who belong to Christ Jesus have crucified the sinful nature with its passions and desires.]

5.25.Since we [live] {are cleansed} by the Spirit, let us [keep in step with] {obey} the Spirit.

5.26.[Let us not become conceited, provoking and envying each other.]

Chapter 6

6.1.Brothers, if someone is caught in a [sin] {spirit of deceit}, you who are [spiritual] {in the Spirit} should restore him gently. But watch yourself, or you also may be tempted.

6.2.Carry each other's burdens, and in this way you will [fulfil] {obey} the [law] {Spirit} of God.

6.3.If anyone thinks he is something when he is nothing, he deceives [himself] {his own spirit}.

6.4.Each one should test his own [actions] {spirit}.  Then he can [take pride] {glory} in [himself] {the Spirit}, without comparing himself to somebody else,

6.5.for each one should [carry] {be responsible for} his own [load] {spirit}.

6.6.Anyone who receives instruction in the [word] {Spirit} must share all good things with his [instructor] {brothers}.

6.7.Do not be deceived: God cannot be mocked. A man reaps what he sows.

6.8.The one who sows to please his [sinful nature] {spirit of deceit}, from that [nature] {spirit} will reap [destruction] {condemnation}; the one who sows to please the Spirit, from the Spirit will reap [eternal life] {glory}.

6.9.Let us not become weary in [doing good] {the Spirit}, for at the proper time we will reap [a harvest if we do not give up] {glory} .

6.10.[Therefore, as we have opportunity, let us do good to all people, especially to those who belong to the family of believers.]


6.11.See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand!

6.12.[Those who want to make a good impression outwardly] {Eleazar and his fellow priests} are trying to compel you to [be circumcised] {sacrifice}.

[The only reason they do this is to avoid being persecuted for the cross of Christ.]

6.13.[Not even] Those who [are circumcised] {sacrifice} obey the [law] {spirit of deceit}, yet they want you to [be circumcised] {sacrifice} that they may boast about your [flesh] {cleansing}.

6.14.May I never boast, except in the [cross] {Spirit} of our Lord

[Jesus Christ, through which the world has been crucified to me].

6.15.[Neither circumcision nor uncircumcision] {Sacrifice} [means] {counts for} [anything] {nothing}; what counts is a [new] {cleansed} [creation] {spirit}.

6.16.Peace [and mercy] to all who follow [this rule, even to] the [Israel] {Spirit} of God.

6.17.Finally, let no-one cause me trouble just because I bear in my body the [marks of Jesus] {Spirit of God}. 

6.18.The [grace] {Spirit} of our Lord [Jesus Christ] be with your spirit, brothers. Amen.

Hurtado, having received the above text, made the following reply. 

On 13 February 2018 at 13:59, HURTADO Larry <L.HURTADO@ed.ac.uk> wrote:
What you sent:
(1) it's a set example of "making up shit".
(2) If it isn't a mania (i.e., some idiosyncratic quasi-conspiracy theory of yours), then I don't know what is.
But, I repeat, Geoff. We're done. We're done. No more, please!

I had a distinct feeling that something was getting to Hurtado.  May be he should consider his own mental health rather than Jesus's. (See HERE)

Geoff Hudson 13 Feb (9 days ago)
Reply to HURTADO

Larry, I believe that what I have written is true. The whole NT is a fabrication of the second/third century Church Fathers of Caesarea who must have been a clever but despicable bunch of drunkards. They took existing prophetic manuscripts and edited/expanded them. They re-wrote much of early Roman history. They used a Jewish version of Antiquities written by prophets to develop what they imagined a Christ was about. After that they wrote War transferring sections of Antiquities in the process. What was it all for, if it wasn't please to the emperor Constantine, enhance their reputation and line their own pockets. It was all about power.

Sunday, January 28, 2018

Paul (Alias Agrippa I)

Professor Larry Hurtado wrote here on January 25, 2018: "The 'Conversion' of Paul:  In the ecclesiastical calendar, today (25 January) is marked as the feast observing the 'conversion' of Saul of Tarsus, a.k.a., Paul the apostle. Quite how the day was chosen is unknown to me. Whether it should be called a 'conversion' is debated among scholars (did Paul change religions or simply realize in a traumatic experience that he was pursuing a misguided cause in 'persecuting' the Jesus-movement?). But the religious re-orientation signified was major and with profound and far-reaching results."
Agrippa had travelled to the Jews in the diaspora, going into the synagogues.  He wrote letters to them.

Many of the New Testament letters were supposedly written by Paul in Greek apparently to various churches in the Jewish Diaspora. A number of them were originally much shorter, as was normal. The original shorter versions were written by Agrippa I, from Rome, to Jews in the diaspora and Jerusalem. Later, the letters were  expanded and edited beyond recognition by the early Church Fathers of Caesarea.  Thus the books of the New Testament now appear as treatises, not letters. The letters have been expanded by the imaginative and scheming Church Fathers. There were many Jews living in Caesarea at the same time as the Church Fathers. Ex Jewish priests were working with the Church Fathers writing 'history' in the writings attributed to Josephus that suited both parties.  Jesus, Paul, James, Peter and the twelve were thus fictitious.

In Acts we see the real reason why Paul (and Stephen) were created by the Church Fathers of Caesarea as a substitute for king Agrippa.   After he was appointed king by Claudius, he did three years of training to become a prophet (Ant.19, 343).  This was the same time it took for a priest to qualify as in the DSS.  Prophets were usually prophets from birth.  But they still had to qualify. They were dedicated to God by their parents, similar to Samuel by his mother Hannah and his father Elakanah. Agrippa was a champion of the Spirit of God.  Like Paul he travelled to the Jewish diaspora, for example Alexandria, probably to encourage the prophets.  As a boy he had been educated in Rome.  He was a friend of Claudius, his wife Agrippina and his son Nero. He would have met many of the Roman elite such as Seneca.  

Nero was placed under the care of Agrippa I, and stayed in a palace at Ein Gedi.  He had become interested in the Jewish prophetic religion of Agrippa.  The Spirit of God was proclaimed by the prophets.  Agrippa accompanied the young Nero to Rome to greet Nero’s father Claudius and his mother, Agrippina. This was an opportunity for Agrippa to proclaim the Spirit in Rome with the blessing of the Emperor Claudius.  It was not a knew religion, but was considered by its followers as a more pure form of the Jewish religion, without animal sacrifice, and in keeping with the Roman belief in spirits. The Romans were a spiritistic society, where the idea of someone being anointed by the Spirit of God was easily acceptable.  These were called Christianos (anointed ones) as at Pompeii (not Antioch).  Thus Agrippa had been in Rome proclaiming that the Spirit was God.  

Agrippa spent some time in Rome, but on one occasion was called back to Jerusalem to deal with the priests who were causing trouble. Two years later Agrippa (alias James) met his death at the hands of an unofficial Sanhedrin organised by rebel priests (Ant.20,200). 

The Church Fathers of Caesarea have Paul first appearing in Acts in Jerusalem preaching that Jesus was the Christ.  He was the champion of a fictitious Jesus.  Later, at the end of his so-called missionary life they have Paul travelling to Rome at the same time as Agrippa went  back to Jerusalem.  Paul then vanished, typically for the Church Fathers who invented many characters who later disappeared. The fictitious Paul apparently knows so many Romans that he must have spent some time living there before embarking on his missionary journeys. (See Romans 16). Thus, it is mighty strange that he is said not to have visited Rome before.  

The Church Fathers had to acknowledge the importance of the Holy Spirit,  but for them it was received after the so called laying on of hands, and usually after baptism (See Acts 8:17).  By sharp contrast the prophets taught that God sent his Spirit to everyone, but only those who obeyed the Spirit received it.  This was a direct communication between God and man without an intercessor.  In Acts 7:51, Agrippa (alias Stephen) clearly identifies that Acts was about the Holy Spirit,  and the historical background of the Holy Spirit, beginning with Abraham. From the time of Moses, the priests had rejected the Holy Spirit. In Acts 7:52, Agrippa (Stephen) identifies himself as a prophet. In Acts 7;41,42 he speaks against animal sacrifice. In Acts 7:48,49 he teaches that the Holy Spirit is not confined to the temple. It wasn’t Moses the Jews had rejected, but God’s Spirit (changed to an angel) (Acts 7.35).  The stoning of Stephen (Acts 7:58) is pure fiction to introduce the fictitious Saul (Paul) out of the blue. Agrippa (Stephen) was man-handled out of the Synagogue by the priests attending the Synagogue in Rome. The priests dare not do any more to Agrippa who they knew was a friend of Claudius.
The story about king 'Herod' executing 'James' (Acts 12) is a good example of the Church Fathers knowing the actual details of an event, and using it to create fictitious stories, in this case about James (and Peter).   The same fictitious story about James is repeated in Antiquities 20.200 which was really about the death of king Agrippa. The true story was about the trial and execution of king Agrippa by a trumped-up Sanhedrin.  

In Chapter 26, Agrippa (alias Paul) has an audience with Claudius, who (in Chapter 27) makes the decision to send him back to Jerusalem with some of the prophets.  This was because the prophets were experiencing persecution by the priests.  They were to call in at Alexandria, and charter a grain ship, paid for by Agrippina. The grain was to help the prophets who were being starved by the priests.  It was Autumn. On leaving Alexandria, the ship had to face the North Easter, and was blown westward.  The ship's owner decided to take shelter for the winter in the lee of Cyprus at the harbour of Kato Paphos.  The shipwreck was pure fiction.

There are images of women in the catacombs of Priscilla, leading worship, both in groups and individually. Also high on a wall in the same catacombs is an image of a mother and child. The women is symbolic of the Spirit . She is the conveyor of the spirit to her child. In Jewish theology every person has a spirit. It is a person’s spirit which gives life which comes from God. In the early Christianos, the women prayed and led prayers in the Spirit, and the men concentrated on proclaiming the Spirit. (See Acts 6).

[ ] Read out  { } Read in

Chapter 1
This chapter is complete fiction.  There was no former book about Jesus.
1.1.[In my former book, Theophilus, I wrote about all that Jesus began to do and to teach until the day
1.2.he was taken up to heaven, after giving instructions to the apostles he had chosen. 
1.3.After his suffering, he showed himself to these men and gave many convincing proofs that he was alive.  He appeared to them over a period of forty days and spoke about the kingdomof God.
1.4.On one occasion, while he was eating with them, he gave them
this command: “Do not leave Jerusalem, but wait for the gift my Father promised, which you have heard me speak about.
1.5.For John baptised with water, but in a few days you will be baptised with the Holy Spirit”.
1.6.So when they met together, they asked him, “Lord,  are you at this time going to restore the kingdom to Israel?” 
1.7.He said to them: “It is not for you to know the times and dates the Father has set by his own authority.
1.8.But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you; and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.
1.9.After he said this, he was taken up before their eyes, and a cloud hid him from their sight. 1.12.Then they returned to Jerusalem from the hill called the Mount of Olives, a Sabbath day's walk from the city.
1.13.When they arrived, they went upstairs to the room where they were staying. Those present were Peter, John, James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew; James son of Alphaeus, and, Simon the Zealot, and Judas son of James,
1.14.they all joined together constantly in prayer, along with the women and Mary the mother of Jesus , and the brothers. 
1.15.In those days Peter stood up among the believers (a group numbering about a hundred and twenty)
1.16.and said, "Brothers, the scripture had to be fulfilled which the Holy Spirit spoke long ago through the mouth of David concerning Judas, who served as a guide for those who arrested Jesus.”
1.17. He was one of our number and shared in this ministry.”
1.18.With the reward he got for his wickedness, Judas bought a field; there he fell headlong, his body burst open and all his intestines spilled out.
1.19.Everyone in Jerusalem heard about this, so they called that field in their language Akeldama that is, Field of Blood.
1.20.“For”, said Peter it is written in the book of Psalms, “ ‘May his place be deserted; let there be no-one to dwell in it,’ and, ‘May another take his place of leadership.’
1.21.Therefore It is necessary to choose one of the men who has been with us the whole time the Lord Jesus went in and out among us.”
1.22., beginning from John’s baptism to the time when Jesus was taken up from us.  For one of these must become a witness with us of his resurrection.”
1.23.So they proposed two men: ­­­­­­­­­­­Joseph called Barsabbas also known as Justus, and Matthias. 1.24.Then they prayed, “Lord, you know everyone’s heart.  Show us which of these two you have chosen
1.25.to take over this apostolic ministry which Judas left to go where he belongs.
1.26.Then they cast lots, and the lot fell to Matthias; So he was added to the eleven apostles].
Chapter 2
The CHRISTIANOS (anointed ones) of Rome
This was a document written in the first person; an ‘I’, ‘me’, ‘we’, and ‘us’ document, written by Agrippa.
A group from Judea went to a synagogue in Rome.  This group was different. They were prophets led and filled by the Spirit of God. Being filled with the Spirit was a normal event for these prophets.  They did everything in the Spirit, as the Spirit enabled them.  To them the Spirit was God himself.  This was a time for the Feast of Unleavened Bread when the Spirit descended.  These are the words of Agrippa.

2.1.When the [day of Pentecost] {Feast of Unleavened Bread} came, [they] {we} were all together in [one place] {the synagogue}. 

2.2.[Suddenly a sound of the blowing of a violent wind came from heaven and filled the whole house where they were sitting. 
2.3.They saw what seemed to be tongues of fire that separated and]   

{The  Spirit} came to rest on each of [them] {us}.

2.4.All of [them] {us} [were filled with the Holy Spirit and] began to [speak] {prophesy} [in other languages]  as the Spirit enabled [them] {us}.

2.5.Now there were staying in [Jerusalem] {Rome} [God-fearing] Jews from every nation under heaven.

2.6.When they heard this

[sound, a crowd came together in bewilderment, because each one heard them,    
2.7.Utterly amazed,]

they asked: "Are not all these men [who are speaking Galileans] {prophets}?" 

2.8.[Then how is it that each of us hears them in his own language: 
2.9.Parthians, Medes and Elamites; residents of Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia,
2.10.Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya near Cyrene, visitors from Rome
both Jews and converts to Judaism Cretans and Arabs –]

2.11."We hear them [declaring] {proclaiming} the [wonders] {Spirit} of God [in our own tongues] !" 

2.12.[Amazed and perplexed, they asked one another, "What does this mean?"  
2.13.Some, however, made fun of them and said, “They have had too much wine”]

2.14.Then [Peter] {I} [stood up with the brothers, raised his voice and] addressed the [crowd] {congregation}: "Fellow Jews and all of you who live in [Jerusalem] {Rome}, let me explain this to you;listen carefully to what I say. 

2.15. [These men are not drunk, as you suppose, it’s only nine in the morning.

this is what was spoken by the prophet Joel: "

2.17."In the last days, God says, ‘I will pour out my Spirit on all people. 
Your sons and daughters will prophesy, your young men will see visions, your old men will dream dreams.

2.18.Even on my servants, both men and women, I will pour out my Spirit in those days
,and they will prophesy."

2.19.[I will show wonders in the heaven above and signs on the earth below, blood and fire and billows of smoke.
2.20.The sun will be turned to darkness and the moon to blood before the coming of the great and glorious day of the Lord.
2.21.And everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.’
2.22.“Men of Israel, listen to this: Jesus of Nazareth was a man accredited by God to you by wonders and signs, which God did among you through him, as you yourselves know. 
2.23.This man was handed over to you by God’s set purpose and foreknowledge, and you, with the help of wicked men put him to death. 
2.24.But God raised him from the dead, freeing him from the agony of death for it was impossible for death to keep its hold on him.”
2.25.”David said about him: ‘I saw the Lord always before me.  Because he is at my right hand, I will not be shaken.
2.26.Therefore my heart is glad and my tongue rejoices; my body will also live in hope,
2.27.because you will not abandon me to the grave, nor will you let your holy one see decay.
2.28.You have made known to me the paths of life; you will fill me with joy in your presence.’
2.29.“Brothers, I can tell you confidently that the patriarch David died and was buried,  and his tomb is here to this day. 
2.30.But he was a prophet and knew that God had promised him on oath that he would place one of his descendants on his throne.
2.31.Seeing what was ahead, he spoke of the resurrection of the Christ.
2.32.God has raised this Jesus to life, and we are all witnesses of the fact.
2.33.Exalted to the right hand of God, he has received from the Father the promised Holy Spirit has poured out what you now see and hear.
2.34.“For David did not ascend to heaven, and yet he said, ‘The Lord said to my Lord:  “Sit at my right hand
2.35.until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.” ’ 
2.36.“Therefore, let all Israel be assured of this: God has made this Jesus, whom you crucified both Lord and Christ.”
2.37.When the people heard this, they were cut to the heart and said to Peter and the other apostles, "Brothers, “What shall we do?"
2.38. Peter replied,  “Repent and be baptised, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.]

2.39."The promise is for you and your children and for all who are far off -- for all whom the Lord our God will call." 

2.40.[With many other words he warned them; and he pleaded with them, "Save yourselves from this corrupt generation”
2.41.Those who accepted his message were baptised, and about three thousand were added to their  number that day.] 

2.42.[They] {We} devoted [themselves] {ourselves} [to the apostle’s teaching and to the fellowship, to the breaking of bread and] to prayer.

2.43.[Everyone was filled with awe, and many wonders and miraculous signs were done by the apostles].

2.44.All [the believers] {of us} were together and had everything in common. 

2.45.Selling [their] {our} possessions and goods, [they] {we} gave to anyone as he had need. 

2.46.Every day [they] {we} continued to meet together in the [temple courts] {synagogue}. 

2.47.[They] {We} [broke bread in their homes and] ate together with glad and pure hearts, praising God and enjoying the favour of all the [people] {brothers}.

2.48.And the Lord added to [their] {our} number daily [those who were being saved].

Chapters 3,4,5 and 6 are fabricated.  

A division of labour - Men proclaimed the Spirit while the Women prayed in the Spirit 

6.1.[In those days when the number of disciples was increasing,]
The [Grecian Jews] {sisters} complained against [the Hebraic Jews] {brothers} because [their widows] {they} were being overlooked in the daily [distribution of food] {prayers}.

6.2.So [the twelve] {I} gathered all the [disciples] {sisters and brothers} together and said, "It [would not be] {is} right for [us] {the women} to [neglect the ministry of] {pray in} the [word] {Spirit} of God [in order to wait on tables.]

6.3.[Brothers, choose seven men from from among you who are known to be full of the Spirit and wisdom.  We will turn this responsibility over to them]

6.4.and [we] {the men} will give [our] {their} attention to [prayer and the ministry of the word] {the proclamation of the Spirit}."

6.5.This proposal pleased the whole group.

[They chose Stephen, full of faith; also Philip, Procorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas, and Nicolas from Antioch, a convert to Judaism.
6.6.They presented these men to the apostles who prayed and laid their hands on them.]

6.7.So the [word] {Spirit} of God spread. The number of [disciples] {Christianos} in [Jerusalem] {Rome} increased rapidly, and a large number of priests became obedient to the [faith] {Spirit}

6.8.[Now Stephen, a man full of God’s grace and power, did great wonders and miraculous signs among the people.]

6.9.Opposition arose, however, from [members] {the priests} of the Synagogue
[of Freedmen as it was called– Jews of Cyrene and Alexandria as well as the provinces of Cilicia and Asia].  These men began to argue with [Stephen] {me},

6.10.but they could not stand up against [his wisdom or] the Spirit by whom [he] {I} spoke.

6.11.Then they [secretly persuaded some men to say] {said}, “We have heard [Stephen] {Agrippa} speak words of blasphemy against Moses and against [God] {sacrifice}.”

6.12.So they [stirred up the people and the elders and the teachers of the law. They] seized [Stephen] {me} and brought [him] {me} before the [Sanhedrin] {synagogue}.

6.13.They [produced false witnesses, who] testified, “This fellow never stops speaking against [this holy place and against the law] {sacrifice}”

6.14.For we have heard him say, that this [Jesus of Nazareth] {Spirit of God} will
[destroy this place and] change the customs Moses handed down to us.

6.15.All who were sitting in the [Sanhedrin] {synagogue} looked intently at [Stephen] {me}
[, and they saw that his face was like the face of an angel].

NOTE: Agrippa was to meet his end at the hands of a rebel priest Eleazar, son of Caiaphas.  The son assembled a jumped-up Sanhedrin who tried and executed Agrippa along with some others. This was turned into the execution of James by the Church Fathers (See Ant.20.200). 

Chapter 7

Agrippa's Reply (Acts 7.51)

7.1[Then the high priest asked him, “Are these charges true?”]

7.2.To this {accusation} [he] {I} replied, “Brothers and fathers, listen to me! The [God of glory] {Spirit of God} appeared to our father Abraham while he was still in Mesopotamia, before he lived in Haran.

7.3.{He said}, "Leave your country and your people [,God said ,] and go to the land I will show you."

7.4,So he left the land of the Chaldeans, and settled in Haran. After the death of his father, {the Spirit of} God sent him to [this land where you are now living] {the land of Canaan}

7.5.He gave him no inheritance [here] {there}, not even a foot of ground. But God promised him that he and his descendants after him would possess the land, even though at that time Abraham had no child.

7.6.{The Spirit of} God spoke to him in this way: "Your descendants will be strangers in a country not their own, and they will be enslaved and ill-treated for four hundred years.

7.7.But I will punish the nation they serve as slaves, [God said,] and afterwards they will come out of that country and worship me in this place."

7.8.Then he gave Abraham the covenant of circumcision. And Abraham became the father of Isaac and circumcised him eight days after his birth. Later Isaac became the father of Jacob, and Jacob became the father of the twelve patriarchs.

7.9.Because the patriarchs were jealous of Joseph, they sold him as a slave into Egypt.
But {the Spirit of} God was with him.

7.10.and rescued him out of all his troubles. He gave Joseph wisdom and enabled him to gain the goodwill of Pharaoh king of Egypt; so he made him ruler over Egypt and all his palace.

7.11.Then a famine struck all Egypt and Canaan, bringing great suffering, and our fathers could not find food.

7.12.When Jacob heard there was grain in Egypt, the Spirit sent our fathers on their first visit.

7.13.On their second visit, Joseph told his brothers who he was, and Pharoah learned about Joseph’s family.

7.14.After this, Joseph sent for his father Jacob and his whole family, seventy-five in all.

7.15.Then Jacob went down to Egypt where he and our fathers died.

7.16.Their bodies were brought back to Shechem and placed in the tomb that Abraham had bought from the sons of Hamor at Shechem for a certain sum of money.

7.17.“As the time drew near for God to fulfil his promise to Abraham, the number of our people in Egypt greatly increased.

7.18.Then another king who knew nothing about Joseph became ruler of Egypt.

7.19.He dealt treacherously with our people and oppressed our forefathers by forcing them to throw out their newborn babies so that they would die.

7.20.At that time Moses was born, and he was [no ordinary child] {filled with the Spirit of God from birth}. For three months he was cared for in his father’s house.

7.21.When he was placed outside, Pharoah’s daughter took him and brought him up as her own son.

7.22.Moses was educated in all the wisdom of the Egyptians and was powerful in speech and action.

7.23.When Moses was forty years old, he decided to visit his fellow Israelites.

7.24.He saw one of them being ill-treated by an Egyptian, so he went to his defence and avenged him by killing the Egyptian.

7.25.[Moses thought that his own people would realise that God was using him to rescue them, but they did not.] (There is no mention of what Moses thought in Ex:2).

7.26.The next day, Moses came upon two Israelites who were fighting. He tried to reconcile them by saying, "Men you are brothers; why do you want to hurt each other?"

7.27.But the man who was ill-treating the other pushed Moses aside and said, "Who made you ruler and judge over us?

7.28.Do you want to kill me as you killed the Egyptian yesterday?"

7.29.When Moses heard this, he fled to Midian, where he settled as a foreigner and had two sons.

7.30.After forty years had passed, [an angel] {the Spirit of God} appeared to Moses in the flames of a burning bush in the desert near Mount Sinai.

7.31.[When he saw this, he was amazed at the sight. As he went over to look more closely,]

He heard the [Lord’s] {Spirit of God’s} voice: "I am the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob."

7.32.Moses trembled with fear [and did not dare to look]. (He had looked already).

7.33.Then the [Lord] {the Spirit of God} said to him, "Take off your sandals; the place where you are standing is holy ground.

7.34.I have indeed seen the oppression of my people in Egypt. I have heard their groaning and have come down to set them free. Now come, I will send you back to Egypt.’

7:35.“This is the same [Moses] {Spirit of God} whom they had rejected with the words, 

[‘who made you ruler and Judge?’ (Ex: 2:14; this only refers to two Hebrews who were fighting)] 

"let us not hear the voice of the Lord our God, nor see this great fire any more, or we will die". (Deut:18:16, see Acts 7:37).

[He was sent to be their ruler and deliverer by God himself, through the angel who appeared to Moses in the bush.]

7.36. [He] {The Spirit} led them out of Egypt and did wonders and signs in Egypt, at the Red Sea, and for forty years in the desert.

7.37.[This is that Moses who told the Israelites, "God will send you a prophet like me from among your own people."] (Deut: 18:15 – presumably referring to Jesus, and next to Deut.18:16 which the writers originally had before them in Acts 7:35).

7.38.[He] {The Spirit} was in the assembly in the desert with [the angel] {Moses} who spoke to him on mount Sinai. And with our fathers, Moses received [living words] {the Spirit} to pass onto us.

7.39. "But our fathers refused to obey [him] {the Spirit}. Instead, they rejected him and in their hearts they turned back to Egypt."

7.40.They told Aaron, ‘Make us gods who will go before us.

[As for this fellow Moses who led us out of Egypt – we don’t know what has happened to him!’]

7.41.That was the time they made an idol in the form of a calf. They brought sacrifices to it and held a celebration in honour of what their hands had made.

7.42.But {the Spirit of} God turned away, and gave them over to [the worship of the heavenly bodies] {their sacrifices}. This agrees with what is written in the book of the prophets:
‘Did you bring me sacrifices and offerings for forty years in the desert, O house of Israel?

7.43.You have lifted up the shrine of Molech and the star of your God Rephan, the idols you made to worship. Therefore I will send you into exile beyond Babylon.

7.44.“Our forefathers had the tabernacle of the [Testimony] {Spirit of God} with them in the desert.
It had been made as {the Spirit of} God directed Moses, according to the pattern he had seen.

7.45.Having received the tabernacle, our fathers under Joshua brought it with them when they took the land from the nations the Spirit drove out before them. It remained in the land until the time of David,

7.46. who enjoyed the {Spirit of} God’s favour and asked that he might provide a dwelling place for [the God of Jacob] {him} .

7.47.But it was Solomon who built the house for him.

7.48.However, the [Most High] {Spirit of God} does not live in houses made by men. As the prophet says,

7.49. ‘Heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool.
What kind of house will you build for me? says the Lord
Or where will my resting place be?
Has not my hand made all these things?’

7.51.“You stiff-necked people, with uncircumcised hearts and ears!
You are just like your fathers: you always resist the Holy Spirit.

7.52.Was there ever a prophet your fathers did not persecute?

[They even killed those that predicted the coming of the Righteous One. And now you have betrayed and murdered him.
7.53.you who have received the law that was put into effect through angels but have not obeyed it.”
7.54.When they heard this, they were furious and gnashed their teeth at him.
7.55.But Stephen, full of the Holy Spirit, looked up to heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God.
7.56.Look, he said, “I see heaven open and the son of man standing at the right-hand of God.”]

7.57.At this they covered their ears and, yelling at the top of their voices, they all rushed at [him] {me},

7.58.{and} dragged [him] {me} out of the [city] {synagogue} 

[and began to stone him. Meanwhile the witnesses laid their clothes at the feet of a young man named Saul.
7.59.While they were stoning him, Stephen prayed, “Lord Jesus, receive my Spirit.”
7.60.Then he fell on his knees and cried out, “Lord do not hold this sin against them.”
When he had said this, he fell asleep.]

NOTE: The stoning of Stephen was an allusion to the method of execution used for the stoning of Agrippa.  Stephen was invented.