Sunday, February 19, 2017

Nero was About Revolution - The Freedom of Greece and Judea/Israel

On page 140 of Rome and Jerusalem Martin Goodman quotes from a surviving Greek inscription: "Other leaders have liberated cities, only Nero a province." There is more to that inscription: (see the ERC project Judaism and Rome 
http://judaism-and-rome.cnrs.fr/node/2539 where you can read the inscription in full.)

Why did Nero feel that he owed a great debt to the people of Greece?  He granted them independence and freedom from taxation.  This was not what the Roman empire was about.  It was a revolution.  There must have been another reason which wasn't to do with the combative games in whatever form they took. The games receive NO mention in the inscription.  Dio saying this was a very special trip, is propaganda.  That Nero went to Greece was secondary.  In the Spring of 66 his main object was to make war on the 30,000 or so Jewish priests who had killed king Agrippa and were persecuting the prophets.  Nero was already in a very happy mood when he landed in Greece with a large army (later mocked by Suetonius).  He was feeling pleased with himself because of his recent victory over the Jewish priests.

In the inscription, Nero is called Zeus Liberator by his Greek hosts.  They understood what that meant in a local and a wider sense. It wasn't just the Greeks who had been given freedom.  In the autumn of 66 Nero had sailed from the port of Caesarea with his army.  He had been in Judea fighting the priests.  He had been let into Jerusalem by the prophets, then he took by storm the fortresses of Masada, Machaerus and Qumran which the priests had occupied.  The priests were killed, or thrown in prison along with Josephus. The temple was left standing with all its wealth.  Five years of peace ensued.  The prophets (obfuscated by Josephus as Essenes) and the people were given their freedom.  Land was sold and marriages were made - activities not usually associated with war.   In the fourth year of the so-called war, Jerusalem was supposed to be under siege, yet coins were being minted in Jerusalem - the last thing anyone would be doing. The so-called coins of revolt were coins of peace and freedom.  The coins carried symbols of items in the sanctuary.  Succoth, a time when the Spirit came down was celebrated. There were no symbols on the coins to do with animal sacrifice.  Nero left a part of the 10th legion in charge to prevent a reaction.   

Then there was the year of the four emperors. Towards the end of that year, General Vespasian saw his chance.  He sought the help of the priests, and commanded his son Titus to invade the temple, kill the prophets who controlled it,  and take prisoner those that were left alive.  They would be transported to Rome for Vespasian's misclaimed triumph.  Vespasian used the wealth from the temple to fund his rise to power (and later his building program) then he set fire to the temple, claiming that it was the Jews fault.         

Nero's links with Greece through his tutor Seneca and his Greek secretary Epaphroditus, among others, were deeply ingrained.  The philosophy of the Stoics, of which Seneca was a supporter, had a number of similarities to that of the prophets.  Nero had been a friend of Agrippa, staying with him, and at Ein Gedi  when he was younger.  Many of the prophets lived at Ein Gedi where the priests later massacred whole families.  The prophets, of which Agrippa was one, were for freedom in the spirit. The seeds were sewn of a new spiritual beginning for the Roman empire.  That new start was first in Judea and then Greece.  

Nero and his mother Agrippina had become followers of the Spirit like the Jewish prophets (See my post Nero and his mother follow the prophets). Seneca and Epaphroditus were probably of the same view, as were many other Romans.  'Christianity' with a crucified Jesus was imposed to hide this.     

Nero had left the temple intact for the prophets to continue their worship in the sanctuary. This was why the so-called ‘coins of revolt’ issued during the four/five years of peace gave no indication of a destroyed temple. More importantly they showed no antagonism to Rome. What they did show were comments such as: “the freedom of Zion”; "the redemption of Zion"; "Shekel of Israel". These comments indicated an event that had occurred.  The coments ont the Bar Kohkba coins had comments for the freedom of ZionNero had granted freedom to the Jewish state and the Jewish people in the same way as he was going to do for Greece.  That meant not only freedom from direct Roman rule but also freedom from Roman taxation.  Also the coins depicted emblems that were in the sanctuary. There was nothing about the altar for burned offerings. The priests had been out of business, exiled from the temple, ever since the time of Judas Maccabeus who purged the temple and kicked the priests out. NONE of the Jewish coins, going back to the second century BC, show any activity, such as the altar for burned offerings, of the priests.  They had been causing trouble for kings and prophets many years. This illustrates the long arm of the Flavians and the extent to which they interfered with the text of Antiquities which I believe was originated by a Jewish prophet at the time of Claudius. Josephus, in keeping with the historians of his day, used another person’s writings.

Thus we have Nero granting freedom first to the province of Judea and then to the province of Greece. This brought him into conflict with the members of the Roman senate. We have ridiculous fabricated stories that tell us about his vile character. Nero must have intended the same for each country of the empire. He was obviously tolerant of all religions.  This liberal minded man preferred peaceful competitions.  He knew what had happened to the Greek empire.

Thursday, February 09, 2017

Proof that Nero won the "Jewish War" - David Hendin on Vitellius's Judea Capta coin

In his article on Page 142 in JUDEA AND ROME IN COINS, David Hendin shows the front and back of a coin of Vitellius (Fig. 26: Vitellius bronze - depicting the victory over the Jews).  Hendin says that the Judea capta series of coins was Rome's victorious response to the Jewish war.  He further implies that Vitellius took advantage of his months in office to use the war for his Roman propaganda.  Hendin thinks that with Vespasian (supposedly) running the show, the Romans were bound to win, and that Vitellius anticipated the victory. This of course is rubbish. If Vitellius anticipated anything, it was that Vespasian intended to mount a raid on the temple. This would make a massive difference to Vespasian's chances of gaining the emperorship.  The original idea of issuing Judea capta coins was Vitellius'.
  

Nero had already won the "war" four/five years previously, which was short, as described in this blog, and not the sort of war created by Josephus (see my post on the 'Circumvallation' Wall).  Vitellius was simply starting a propaganda which Vespasian later exploited with further issues of Judea Capta coins.  As Vitellius was the last emperor in the 'year of the four emperors', one can safely say that the 'war' had been over four/five years before Vitellius came up with the idea of issuing Judea Capta coins. Vitellius was using Nero's victory over the priests for his own propaganda as a victory over the Jews.  Vitellius was expecting to claim the riches of the temple for himself, knowing what was in the temple because he had been governor of Syria. But Vespasian beat him to it.